2014 Teleconference/Webinar Calendar

Since 1935, the International Municipal Lawyers Association (IMLA, formally NIMLO) has specialized in serving municipal lawyers and advancing the interests of local government law.  One way we do this is by connecting our members with recognized leaders in their field on a wide range of topical and practical legal issues.  For years we have done this through live teleconferences and Webinars.


2014 IMLA Teleconference/Webinar Schedule

Unless otherwise noted, all webinars are one hour long from 1-2 PM Eastern.

Past Teleconference/Webinars

January 14 – Land Use – L50
2013 Land Use - The Year in Review

Start the year off right with a comprehensive briefing on land use law developments from 2013 and what lies ahead from the six of the seven authors of the pre-eminent casebook on land use law…

Speakers: Dwight Merriam, Dan Mandelker, Nancy Stroud, Carol Brown, Peter Salsich and Julie Tappendorf


January 29 – Personnel – P50

Getting Trendy with Employment Law: What to Expect in 2014

• Court Dockets for the Coming Year
• Legislative Proposals
• Administrative Proceedings and Rules

Speakers: Dan Crean and Sheila Gladstone


February 10 – Land Use – L51
Local Government Perspectives on “Fracking”; the good, the bad, and the ugly?

From a public policy perspective, high volume hydraulic fracturing of shale deposits for oil and gas exploration poses questions of national and global energy policy and environmental constraints and related state and local issues. This webinar focuses on proactive local government approaches to community impacts of oil and gas exploration and development such as noise, light, roads and infrastructure, air and water pollution, land use and natural resource planning, and social issues such as housing, schools, hospitals, and public safety.
This includes anecdotal material from New Mexico and New York.

Speakers: Erica Powers, Stephen Ross, Sorell Negro, and Dan Mandelker


February 19- Personnel – P51

Employee Outside Interests: Legitimate Employer Concern or Landmine?

This webinar will examine issues arising from employee outside interests such as conflicts of interest and moonlighting.

Speakers: Dan Crean and Peter Letzmann


March 10 – Land Use – L52
Comprehensive Plans

"Make no little plans; they have no magic to stir men's blood and probably themselves will not be realized. Make big plans; aim high in hope and work." said Daniel Burnham. But he didn't say anything about whether local comprehensive planning was mandatory or whether planning and zoning decisions had to be consistent with any local plans. Those issues are front and center in the turbulent legal landscape of local planning. Our two experts, who between them have four score years of experience in this area will offer you an illuminating debate subject.

Speakers: Ed Sullivan, Deborah Rosenthal, Professor David King, Dwight Merriam, and Dan Mandelker


March 19 – Personnel – P52
Public Employee Speech: The “INs and OUTs” of the Political, Confidential, Policy-Maker Exception to Protected Speech

This webinar examines which employees and what speech are encompassed within the so-called Bronti-Elrod exception to public employee speech rights.

Speakers: Dan Crean and Vince Fontana


March 20- Litigation – L50
Preserving and Protecting Cities' Interests in Consumer Class Actions

Municipalities are significant consumers of products used by police and fire departments, public works departments, parks and recreation departments, schools, and other municipal departments serving local communities. In recent years, significant criminal actions have been brought against foreign manufacturers of such products, resulting in billions of dollars levied in criminal fines, and jail time for many executives. Civil lawsuits targeting the same conduct have yielded recoveries worth billions of dollars in the aggregate – the most recent being the $1.1 billion settlement in the LCD antitrust action, in which some public entities have claims exceeding $1 million.

In many cases municipalities and other local public agencies cannot participate in these actions – and therefore cannot recover for the harms they have suffered – because they are expressly excluded from the class definition. What are the opportunities, duties, and responsibilities of municipalities in such cases? This seminar will explore the current status of pending actions, including whether municipalities will be eligible to participate in recoveries, and what options municipalities have to ensure meaningful participation and recovery in these valuable actions.

Speakers: Scott Dickey & Lesley Weaver


March 27 – Constitutional Law – C50
Sign Regulations and the First Amendment: Navigating Recent Developments in the Law

This presentation will discuss recent developments in the law of sign regulations concerning the monetization of billboards and other commercial signs, political and protest signs, and the public forum doctrine.

Speakers: Deborah Fox and David Warner


April 2 – Telecommunications – T50
Cell Tower Leasing

Cell Tower site leasing/licensing for local governments is an excellent way to produce new long term non-tax revenues, but crafting the right terms and drafting the proper documents are fraught with potential legal landmines. John Pestle, Esq. and Jonathan Kramer, Esq. are both deeply experienced with crafting and enforcing municipal cell tower site agreements. In this 90-minute webinar, they will identify those legal landmines, discuss industry boilerplate provisions, and offer useful practice pointers to guide you through the process. The program will cover both key aspects of cell leases, and the potential sale by municipalities of such leases and long-term leasing rights. Extensive handouts in PDF format will be provided to participants.

Speakers: John Pestle and Jonathan Kramer

***This webinar is 1.5 hours***


April 14- Land Use – L53
Inclusionary Zoning

Inclusionary zoning is a concept that has come, and gone, and come back again. In this time of this post-recession rebuilding of our real estate market, local governments all across the country are beginning to take another look at what they can do to provide more affordable housing for all types of individuals and households from the young, upwardly mobile central city family that wants the opportunity to live in the suburbs, to the aging widow wants to stay in her hometown but can no longer afford to do so. This session will bring you up to speed on what the current issues are and provide you with some solid, take away advice that you can use.

Speakers: Hon. Peter Buchsbaum, Jennifer Bragar, Robert Holmes, Dwight Merriam, and Dan Mandelker


April 16 – Personnel – P53
Workplace Investigations: Best Practices With a Focus on Employee Privacy

Discipline in public employment matters is never easy. Investigations prior to consideration of discipline may facilitate or impair that process. This IMLA webinar seeks to provide guidance in handling workplace investigations, including a discussion of employee privacy rights.

Speakers: Dan Crean and Melinda Barlow


April 28 – Municipal Finance – F51
Tax-Exempt Governmental Bonds: Private Activity Pitfalls and Pratfalls

Governmental entities that issue tax-exempt governmental bonds are generally required to maintain governmental use of bond financed projects in order to maintain the tax-exempt status of the bonds. This webinar will highlight common types of “private use” arrangements that governmental entities enter into, their possible (and sometimes surprising) effect on the tax-exempt status of related bonds, remedies that are available to governmental entities to maintain the tax-exempt status of the related bonds, as well as some best-practice suggestions to avoid unintended consequences of entering into private use arrangements.

Speakers: Kara Adams & Brenda McDonough


May 6, 2014- Telecommunications – T51
Cell Tower Zoning

Federal Law of Cell Tower Zoning: The 90-minute webinar, presented by two national experts, will provide a summary and overview of the Federal law of cell tower zoning, including: (1) Key court cases, principles and practical advice from the eighteen years since Congress passed the 1996 cell tower zoning amendments; (2) dealing with the FCC's "Shot Clock" orders; and (3) the 2012 Federal statute (Section 6409(a)) which purports to override state and local laws affecting collocation; the (4) current FCC Notice of Proposed Rulemaking proceeding on Section 6409(a), and; (5) the current FCC Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on radio frequency emissions safety standards. The webinar includes two narrated PowerPoint presentations, an 85-page paper summarizing relevant cases and proceedings, and substantial practical guidance for municipal attorneys dealing with wireless tower siting ordinances and planning matters. An interactive Question and Answer session will follow the presentations.

Speakers: John Pestle and Jonathan Kramer

***This webinar is 1.5 hours***


May 8 – Synthetic Drugs– D50
Synthetics: The Battle for Duluth

Over the past four years, Duluth, Minnesota has been ground zero in the nation’s struggle to address the public health threat associated with the sale and ingestion of synthetic drugs, commonly called “bath salts,” “herbal incense,” or “fake weed” and bearing street names such as “K2,” “Spice,” “DOA,” “Role-X Watch Cleaner” and “Water Pipe Cleaner.”

Synthetic Drugs: The Battle for Duluth relates the devastating effect synthetic drugs had on Duluth’s historic downtown district and the community as a whole before the court-ordered closure of the infamous downtown headshop known as the “Last Place on Earth” on July 19, 2013. The presentation highlights the municipal tools used to challenge the unregulated sale of synthetic drugs within the community, as well as the multi-faceted approach utilized by the city and other governmental entities to curtail the public health pandemic and overwhelming nuisance conditions flowing from the open and notorious sale of designer drugs.

**Note: A portion of this webinar (approximately 6 minutes) will consist of videos depicting various aspects of the synthetic drug problem in Duluth. Participants must be logged in to the webinar on their computers in order to both see and hear the videos. If you are logged into the presentation through your telephone you will not be able to hear the audio portion of the videos. Anyone requiring technical assistance in logging in to the webinar should contact Amanda Kellar at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Speaker: Nathan LaCoursiere


May 12 – Land Use – L54

We are bringing back Professors Brown and Salsich from their well-received presentations in January to talk about an issue that just keeps getting back in our face, call it the “Justin Bieber of constitutional problems in land-use.” You need to know what the post-Koontz world is like and have a firm grasp of the recent developments since we covered this issue year ago. Come to class on May 12 and take a front row seat as our two professors regale you with the latest and greatest.

Speakers: Professor Carol Brown, Professor Peter Salsich, Dwight Merriam, and Dan Mandelker


June 2 – Land Use – L61
Local Regulation of Historic Properties - "Developing a Historic Preservation Ordinance from Scratch (or Fixing an Old One)"

Of course, nearly every municipality has historic resources and needs to plan and regulate for their protection and preservation. Get out of the summer sun and heat, sit back with the pitcher of iced tea and some lemon drop cookies, and enjoy the stimulating conversation from two of the country’s leading experts about how you can make your historic preservation regulations better -- or build them from the ground up.

Speakers: Professor Sara Bronin, Ryan Rowberry, Tom Cody, and Michele Maresca


June 5-Municipal Finance – F52
SEC Self-Reporting Initiative for Issuers and Other Significant Recent Disclosure Actions: Decisions for Municipal Lawyers

Recently, the Securities and Exchange Commission has become more assertive regarding municipal issuer continuing disclosure. The Commission is concerned about persistent reports of substantial non-compliance by issuers with their continuing disclosure agreements. In 2013, the SEC announced a number of enforcement actions. In March 2014, the SEC publicized a new initiative “to encourage issuers and underwriters of municipal securities to self-report certain violations … rather than wait for their violations to be detected.” The Commission stated that, under the “Municipalities Continuing Disclosure Cooperation (MCDC) Initiative, the Enforcement Division will recommend standardized, favorable settlement terms to municipal issuers and underwriters who self-report” by September 10, 2014 “that they have made inaccurate statements in bond offerings about their prior compliance with continuing disclosure obligations.” The Commission added, “Those who do not self-report and instead decide to take their chances can expect to face increased sanctions for violations.” The Initiative creates circumstances in which certain issuers and their counsel must consider whether to self-report potential violations.
This webinar will consider the SEC’s Initiative, as well as recent enforcement actions, with SEC enforcement staff, bond counsel and an issuer official.
We recommend you invite your finance directors to attend this webinar.

Speakers: Robert Doty, Mark Zehner, Peter Chan, Barbara Adams, John McNally, and Jim Burr

** This webinar will be 75 minutes


June 9-Land Use – L55
Dealing with Vacant Property

Regrettably, there is an enormous amount of vacant property, some of it left in the wake of natural disasters when property owners who not adequately insured have not been able to rebuild, and some of it simply abandoned after the worst real estate recession of any of our lifetimes. Our esteemed panel knows what to do from their experience, their research, and their writings. At the end of this fast-paced one hour, your toolbox of techniques to address the vacant lots in your municipality will be filled to overflowing.

Speakers: Alan Mallach, Michael Braverman, Sorell Negro, Dwight Merriam, and Dan Mandelker


June 18 – Personnel – P54
Remind Me Again – Why Did We Hire that Person?

Employee selection and hiring can be more like an art form than a science (notwithstanding the time, money, and effort spent by the NFL on its annual player draft). Thus, not all hires will result in selection of the correct applicant who will mesh perfectly. This teleconference examines options to lessen risks when employers need to take action to correct hiring problems.

Speakers: Dan Crean and Lawrence L. Lee


July 14 – Land Use – L56
Home Rule and Preemption

The biggest issue today in local government, hidden from view because the media doesn't think it newsworthy, is home rule and preemption -- it cuts across all manner of federal, state, and local intergovernmental relations, planning, and regulation. The effects can be dramatic in terms of cutting off local governments from governing locally. Regulation of tracking is just one example of many where this issue home rule and preemption predominate. Professor Callies knows this area the law like no one else can you will come away from this teleconference is an expert yourself.

Speakers: Professor David Callies, Dwight Merriam, and Dan Mandelker


July 16 – Personnel – P55

The Supremes Sing Again: You Keep Me Hangin’ On

This Teleconference Reviews and Analyzes the 2013 Term Employment Law Decisions from the United States Supreme Court Along with Selected Decisions from Other Courts

Speakers: Dan Crean, Douglas Haney


July 24 – Litigation – LI51
Confidentiality v. Public Access in the Courtroom

This webinar will explore tactics for opposing, seeking, and structuring anonymous parties, in camera sessions, ex parte hearings, bench conferences, closed courtrooms, sealing orders, and other non-public procedures in civil litigation.

Ethics credit may be available for this session.

Speaker: Peter Haskel


August 14 Land Use – L61
Sex, Guns & Drugs:
Planning for Controversial Land Uses

The U.S. Constitution guarantees freedom of expression, freedom of religion, and the right to bear arms. But it’s not that simple. Businesses that rely on these constitutional guarantees continue to generate controversy in communities across the country. To compound matters, state legislatures from Arizona to Massachusetts have been busy granting new – and in many cases, previously unheard of – rights to marijuana and firearm retailers. This has rapidly drawn planners and zoning practitioners into the debate over how these businesses best fit into their communities, and whether their communities are legally obligated to accommodate these uses in the first place. Spend an hour learning about the issues and regulatory strategies from around the country.

Speakers: Daniel J. Bolin (Ancel Glink, PC, Chicago, Illinois) and Gregory W. Jones (Ancel Glink, PC, Chicago, Illinois)


August 18- Transportation- 60

Uber/Lyft and Other Innovative Solutions to Transportation Demand

IMLA has a terrific program set for Baltimore that includes an in depth discussion of some innovative transportation ideas, but we have had so much demand for a program that we will host a FREE Webinar for our members on Monday, August 18 at 1PM EDT to discuss this topic. For Monday, we are delighted to have Nicholas W. Ramfos, Director, Alternative Commute Programs, National Capital Region Transportation Planning Board, Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments presenting together with Erich Eiselt, IMLA Assistant General Counsel and Editor of the IMLA Municipal Lawyer


August 20- Personnel – P56

Employment Preferences & Discrimination After Schuette

In April of this year, the U.S. Supreme Court was asked to decide if an amendment to Michigan’s state constitution that prohibits state universities from considering race as part of its admissions process violated the U.S. Constitution’s Equal Protection Clause. While avoiding the specific question of the constitutionality of affirmative action, the Court upheld the amendment as not violating court precedent described as the “political-process doctrine.” The impact of that decision on local government employment may result in the role of affirmative action being determined largely by state and local government actions. This webinar looks at those implications and discusses and analyzes alternatives to increase diversity in employment without the use of quotas or other race-based preferences.

Speakers: Dan Crean and Sheila Gladstone


September 8 – Land Use – L57

Health Impact Assessments

In this new wonderful world of wellness, we now have concerns about the intersection of land-use planning and regulation in the health of our citizens. The term "six pack" has new meaning in this context. If you know little or nothing about health impact assessments (and most of us are in that category), gather up your staff and invite some of your planner friends in to hear what Dean Salkin has to say so that you can make meaningful contributions to this emerging, significant trends.

Speakers: Dean Patricia Salkin, Dwight Merriam, and Dan Mandelker


September 30 – Marijuana Legalization – D51

Preparing Your Community for the Side Effects of Marijuana

Learn from the experiences of municipal attorneys in the trenches in a state where marijuana has been legalized (Colorado) and a state that allows medical marihuana (Michigan). Proactive approaches and defensive maneuvers will be shared with municipal attorneys in states that have some form of legalized marijuana and for those communities that will be facing future legalization pushes.

Speakers: Doug Friednash, Mark Barnes & Lori Bluhm


October 9- Transportation – TR61

Uber and Transportation Network Companies (“TNCs”)

This teleconference will be free for members!

New smartphone-enabled transportation services are presenting significant regulatory and economic challenges to municipalities. How do we address issues of licensing, background checks, vehicle safety, accessibility, insurance, fees and taxes, enforcement and others? We are pleased to provide IMLA members with our second teleconference on Transportation Network Companies. Our headliner is Matthew Daus, who leads the transportation practice at Windels, Marx in New York City. Formerly the Commissioner of New York City’s Taxi License Commission and currently President of the International Association of Transportation Regulators, Mr. Daus and his colleagues at the firm’s transportation practice will speak to these issues, pointing to TNC policies and ordinances that have been adopted around the country.

We are allocating 90 minutes to this session to allow ample time for questions and answers.

We will be distributing to registered members a significant number of relevant documents well in advance of the session, including a recent overview of litigation involving Uber produced by Mr. Daus and his colleagues. We look forward to this important discussion--please bring your questions!

***This teleconference is 1.5 hours***

Host- Erich Eiselt, IMLA Assistant General Counsel

Matthew Daus, Partner, Windels Marx Lane & Mitttendorf, New York, NY.

Jasmine Le Veaux, Counsel, Windels Marx Lane & Mittendorf, New York, NY.

Jason R. Mischel, Counsel, Windels Marx Lane & Mittendorf, New York, NY.

Date: October 9, 2014

Time: 1PM EDT


October 14- Land Use – L58

Implementing Affirmatively Furthering Fair Housing

Every city and county that receives Community Development Block Grants, HOME funds, and many other federal funds is required to “affirmatively further fair housing” — an obligation that DOJ, HUD, and private parties have been enforcing since 2009. It actually is all about bringing an end to “American Apartheid.” Learn about the key litigation used to enforce this obligation and what communities can realistically do to actually affirmatively further fair housing. It’s a lot more demanding than posting the Fair Housing Logo on your city’s website.

Speakers: Daniel Lauber, Michael AllenDwight Merriam, and Dan Mandelker

Date: October 14, 2014

Time: 1PM EDT


October 21 – Environmental Law – E50 

PCBs in Schools

In recent years, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been discovered in schools throughout the Northeast resulting in EPA mandated multi-million dollar clean-up projects to remove PCBs from classrooms. More recently, the discovery of PCBs in a California school district has led experts to believe that tens of thousands of schools nationwide may be contaminated by the carcinogen. This webinar will discuss the extent of the problem, legal and scientific issues relating to remediating classrooms and on-going litigation on behalf of school districts to recover cleanup costs from Monsanto, the exclusive manufacturer of PCBs in the United States.

Speakers: Kevin Madonna & David MacIntosh

Date: October 21, 2014

Time: 1PM EDT


October 22 – Personnel – P58
Smoke Gets in Your Eyes – Or Does It?

Employee testing for alcohol, drugs and other substances has been a matter of controversy and concern for a number of years. The emergence of laws conditionally legalizing medical and recreational use of marijuana may alter the legal landscape of testing. This webinar looks at current practices for drug and alcohol testing of public employees and the possible changes arising from legalization.

Speakers: Jane TaylorLawrence LeeKathleen Davidson, & Dan Crean

Date: October 22, 2014

Time: 1PM EDT

October 30 – Ethics – E51

Lawyers & Social Media: Beware of Ethical Pitfalls

Attorneys are just as likely to use social media in their everyday lives as non-attorneys. But where a hasty post or comment might lead only to embarrassment for some, a seemingly innocent disclosure by an attorney could lead to serious ethical repercussions. In this program, Julie Tappendorf, the co-author of the book “Social Media & Local Governments: Navigating the New Public Square,” will provide an overview of the most common ways social media use by lawyers could lead to ethical violations of the ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct.

Speaker: Julie Tappendorf

Date: October 30, 2014

Time: 1PM EDT

November 4 – Municipal Finance – F50

Municipal Bankruptcy

What happens to our pensions when a local government declares bankruptcy?  This webinar will provide a recap of recent decisions in California and Detroit on the status of local government pensions should a local government declare bankruptcy

Speakers: Steve Kemp and Karen Grande

Date: November 4, 2014

Time: 1PM EDT


November 6 – Telecommunications – T52

New FCC Rules on Cell Tower Zoning

The program will describe, interpret, and offer practice recommendations regarding the FCC's Report and Order, issuing rules implementing Section 6409(a) of the 2012 Middle Class Tax Relief Act, 47 U.S.C. § 1455(a) and the FCC’s Shot Clock rules. 

Section 6409(a) purports to say that states and local units of government must approve (and cannot deny) zoning and other approvals needed for certain wireless tower collocations and other wireless tower modifications.  In the rulemaking the cell phone industry has asked the FCC for broad preemption of state and local approvals, such as with the need for such approvals being abolished or with approvals automatically being deemed granted if the government fails to decide the case within the Shot Clock period.   

The program will describe and comment on the new rules, including what types of wireless tower modifications the rules apply to, time to act, the application process and any transition periods.  Particular issues of concern include the treatment of stealth or camouflaged sites, applicability of the rules to cell sites on municipal property, preemption of building or safety related codes, conflicts with other Federal statutes, venue for remedies (court or FCC) and whether the rules (as requested by industry) apply to new cell sites.  This will be a hand-on session geared to helping local government attorneys advise their internal clients on how to implement the new rules.

Speakers: John Pestle and Jonathan Kramer

***This webinar is 1.5 hours***

Date: November 6, 2014

Time: 1PM EDT

November 10- Land Use – L59


The "Code Brothers" (think of them as the "Blues Brothers" of code writing) will remind you of Elwood’s oft-repeated line: “We're on a mission from God” because they are so committed to the cutting edge of codes. You want to know something about codes? This is the place to be. You can bet they will start their program was something much like Elwood did: “It's 106 miles to Chicago, we got a full tank of gas, half a pack of cigarettes, it's dark... and we're wearing sunglasses.”

Speakers: Mark WhiteJoel RussellDon ElliottDwight Merriam, and Dan Mandelker

Date: November 10, 2014

Time: 1PM EDT

 November 19 – Personnel – P59

Municipal Employment and Immigration: Something New – or Not so New?

Municipal employers must walk a fine line in handling immigration issues with respect to applicants for employment, current employees, and even discharged or retired employees. This IMLA webinar analyzes and provides guidance as it reviews State and Federal requirements ranging from E-Verify, to record-keeping, to mandated actions. If Federal legislation or administrative rules are adopted prior to the webinar, compliance guidance will be provided as well.

Speakers: Dan Crean,Keith Pabian, and Rusi Patel

Date: November 19, 2014

Time: 1PM EDT

December 8 – Land Use – L60


A year of IMLA land-use teleconferences would not be complete without a most spirited debate from two people who are widely acknowledged as poles apart on RLUIPA. Professor Hamilton, bar none, is the country’s leading government-side advocate and scholar. Dan Dalton has recently published a book for the American Bar Association and how to best represent religious institutions against local governments. He has never lost an RLUIPA case for a religious institution. These two have debated each other before and the sparks they generate will be illuminating.

Speakers: Marci HamiltonDan DaltonEvan Seeman

Date: December 8, 2014

Time: 1PM EDT

December 16 – Ethics – E50
When Does “No” Mean “No”: A Discussion of the “No Contact” Rule and the Representation of Multiple Internal Government Constituents

A government lawyer faces challenging issues by virtue of representing a government organizational entity. Private lawyers want to communicate with your represented elected and appointed officers and employees under claim of legal right. The government lawyers is often asked to handle legal matters involving multiple constituents within the government at times with conflicting interests and positions. At times the government attorney must just say “no”. This webinar will include a discussion of the issues and the applicable Model Rules of Professional Responsibility as well as the approach of some state bars.

Speaker: Marion Radson

Date: December 16, 2014

Time: 1PM EDT

December 17 – Personnel – P60

Best Practices to Limit or Prevent Employment Discrimination Liability

Employment discrimination claims are the most commonly filed lawsuits in the federal court system.  But they also reveal patterns in the way cases are litigated and how plaintiff's attorneys try to prove discrimination.  By learning from these patterns, employers can improve their day-to-day handling of human resources issues and decrease their exposure to lawsuits.  So, please join us for a special presentation from guest speaker David A. Cole, a partner with the law firm of Freeman Mathis & Gary, LLP, in Atlanta, Georgia, as he leads an insightful discussion of the best practices for employers to limit or prevent their employment discrimination liability.

Speakers: Dan Crean and David Cole

Date: December 17, 2014

Time: 1PM EDT